Remote ID Questions and Answers: Who Enforces Remote ID? When does it take effect? Where is it required? DRONERESPONDERS, a non-profit organization that supports public safety authorities in the use of drones, has the answers to all of these questions and more.
The FAA today released the long-awaited remote ID rule for drones. “Remote ID will help minimize the risks associated with advanced drone operations such as flights over people and at night, and both rules support technological and operational innovations and advances,” the FAA announcement said.
“The release of the definitive rule for Remote ID is a highly anticipated development to increase public safety in connection with unmanned aerial systems (UAS),” said Chief Charles Werner (retired), director of DRONERESPONDERS, the world’s leading 501 (c) 3 non-profit program to support the use of drones by first responders. “Once fully implemented, Remote ID technology will provide law enforcement and security actors with a better way to assess low-level UAS traffic in their respective jurisdictions.”
While Remote ID will help advance the secure integration of unmanned systems into the airspace, stakeholders will have many questions about the details of implementing Remote ID. The following remote ID questions and answers are for the public safety community and answer questions that many stakeholders need to answer: from equipping or retrofitting existing equipment to information being made available to the public.
DRONERESPONDERS questions and answers about the impact of Remote ID on US security agencies:
1. What are the public safety requirements?
Public safety agencies must comply with Part 89 unless otherwise authorized.
2. How does the FAA or the DOJ plan to enforce RID?
The FAA has a responsibility to ensure compliance with Part 89. Enforcement of this rule is in accordance with the guidelines set out in FAA regulation 2150.3.
3. When does it take effect?
A person who creates a standard remote ID UA for operation in the national airspace system must meet the requirements of the rule no later than 60 days + 18 months after publication.
A person who makes a Remote ID Broadcast Module must meet the requirements of the rule 60 days after publication.
The operators must comply with the remote ID 60 days + 30 months after publication.
4. Is RID only needed in controlled airspace and in other congested areas (TFR stage, densely populated urban areas, etc.)?
A remote ID is required if you work anywhere in the National Airspace System and are not in an FAA Recognized Identification Area (FRIA).
5. Is RID required for flights below 400 feet? Is RID required in unrestricted airspace? How will RID deter criminals who are not interested in RID?
A remote ID is required for all UAS (manufactured or self-built) that require registration and that operate in the National Airspace System (NAS).
The regulation presupposes compliance with the regulations. Individuals who fail to comply are subject to FAA enforcement measures under FAA regulation 2150.3.
6. Can RID be used as a damage control for flying UAS in an overly restricted TFR (DC FRZ, VIP TFR, etc)?
It is up to the security agency that controls the TFR to authorize the UAS to operate and make a decision about any mitigation that Remote ID may offer.
7. Will public safety be required to provide RID, especially for sensitive missions?
Public safety agencies must adhere to the Remote ID rule. There are provisions (under development) that allow operations without a remote ID if approved by the administrator.
8. What is the requirement for existing drones?
All UAS that require registration and that operate on the National Airspace System (NAS) must conform to Part 89. With existing drones, this can be achieved by attaching an approved transmitter to the aircraft and operating it as a remote ID UAS of the broadcast module.
9. How do we retrofit older custom drones to meet requirements? What is the process like for smaller companies building their own UAS?
The person installing the Remote ID Broadcast Module must perform the upgrade according to the instructions from the Remote ID Broadcast Module manufacturer to ensure that the Broadcast Module is compatible with the UA, that the installation has been successfully completed and that the remote ID functionality meets all requirements of this rule.
10. When does RID become manufacturer liability (ie from purchase, registration?)
Manufacturers of standard Remote ID UAS or Remote ID Broadcast Modules are responsible for ensuring that their devices comply with an FAA-approved MOC (Means of Compliance) and are declared on their Declaration of Conformity (DOC).
The operator of a UAS is responsible for ensuring that proper remote ID transmission is ensured before the flight.
11. Does it require a monthly subscription? Costs?
No. Neither the standard remote ID nor the broadcast module remote ID require subscription service.
12. Does this require a network connection?
No. Both the standard remote ID and the broadcast module remote ID work with high-frequency spectra such as WLAN or Bluetooth, which are transmitted by the UAS or the broadcast module itself.
13. How is RID received by public safety? Are there any costs?
The FAA provides that industry stakeholders determine the appropriate spectrum for remote ID and propose solutions as part of the MOC acceptance process (Means of Compliance). The purpose of this requirement is to ensure that the public can receive these broadcast messages using generally available 47 CFR Part 15 compliant devices such as cell phones, smart devices, tablets, or laptops.
14. What information must be provided? Public Safety Exceptions?
Standard Remote ID:
Identification, location and performance information for both the UA and the control station
Remote ID of the broadcast module:
Information on the identification, location and performance of the UA and the starting location of the UA
15. Will personal data be publicly available for all SUAS operations?
No. Both remote ID options send either the serial number assigned to the UA or broadcast module or a session ID.
16. Is the location of the operator / pilot shared with the public as part of the packet transfer?
The location and the height of the control station are included in the transmission elements under Standard Remote ID.
The start location and height of the transmission elements are included under Remote ID Broadcast Module.
Both the standard remote ID and the broadcast module remote ID work with high-frequency spectra such as WiFi or Bluetooth, which are transmitted by the UAS or the broadcast module itself.
17. Is there a way to integrate this RID information into other LE databases?
In addition to assisting the FAA with civil enforcement of FAA regulations, the FAA believes that law enforcement and national security agencies will find remote identification information useful for law enforcement, public safety, and security. The FAA intends to couple removed identification data with certain registration data for accredited and vetted law enforcement and federal security agencies as needed.
18. What about rogue aviators who want to defy remote ID?
Enforcement is in accordance with the guidelines listed in FAA regulation 2150.3.
19. Is there no RID conformity and no requirement to start?
Before starting, the UAS must be verified by the operator to ensure that it is transmitting the appropriate Remote ID information per Part 89.
20. Is there a practical way for hobbyists who build their own RC planes and quadcopters and then prefer to fly them in places that are not designated as a FRIA zone (e.g. on their own property, in local parks, schools , public federal states, etc.)? ) to comply with this rule?
No. A remote ID is required for all UAS (manufactured or self-built) that require registration and operate in the National Airspace System (NAS).
21. Can a city create its own FRIA areas (parks, open spaces, etc.)?
FRIAs can only be obtained from FAA recognized community organizations and educational institutions.
22. Can FPV remote pilots fly outside of FRIAs?
A remote ID is required for all UAS (manufactured or self-built) that require registration and that operate in the National Airspace System (NAS). An establishment that violates Part 89 is subject to FAA enforcement measures provided in FAA regulation 2150.3.
23. How does RID affect civil protection?
Civil protection operations can continue as in the past. As soon as the remote ID is in effect, these UAS must be equipped in accordance with Part 89. Emergency operations / permits are still available through the Special Governmental Issuance (SGI) process.
24. What do organizations that support UAS public safety operations need to know about RID?
The remote ID is mandatory for all UAS that must be registered under Part 47 or 48. There are two types of remote ID transfers:
Standard Remote ID: Identification, location and performance information for both the UA and the control station
Remote ID of the broadcast module: Information on the identification, location and performance of the UA and the starting location of the UA
Remote ID is not an operating rule, but a device requirement.
Part 89 enables operations without a remote ID through a specific FAA authorization or an FAA recognized identification area (FRIA).
The FAA authorization provision in 89.110 or 89.115 is currently under process development. More information on this provision will be announced in the coming months
Miriam McNabb is editor-in-chief of DRONELIFE and CEO of JobForDrones, a marketplace for professional drone services, and a fascinating observer of the emerging drone industry and the regulatory environment for drones. Miriam has written over 3,000 articles focusing on the commercial drone space and is an international speaker and recognized figure in the industry. Miriam graduated from the University of Chicago and has over 20 years experience in high tech sales and marketing for new technologies.
For advice or writing on the drone industry, email Miriam.
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